Slab On Ground Design Example


This can be used in conjunction with a structural analysis program such as our Slab Analysis Tool. Slab-on-Ground Design. Concrete Advice. "Slab Thickness Design for Industrial Concrete Floors on Grade" (IS195. The slab is #[email protected]” top squares grade 60, and #6 @6” bottom squares grade 60. When prepping a large area—for a patio, for example, or a larger concrete slab—renting a mechanical compactor is a good idea. E-Mail [email protected] 1—Introduction. For many years, the UK ‘Bible’ for designing concrete ground-bearing slabs was Colin Deacon’s Concrete Ground Floors: their design, construction and finish [2]. Design is the decision-making process of planning, sizing, detailing, and developing specifications preceding construction of slabs-on-ground. Typical sizes for concrete slabs are 12x12, 20x30, 30x50 and 40x60, but may differ according to your project's specific needs. Analysis of a slab's capacity to support on interior line load or concentrated point load: On-screen warning messages for out of compliance conditions. a new and accurate equation for rc wall design is presented. For the example building, the storey numbers are defined as follows:. Civil Engineering Design (1) 7 Dr. The design of raft foundations involves a number of disciplines, as consideration must be given not only to the structure itself, but also to; integration other constructions (such as external walls ), insulation, damp proofing and complex ground conditions such as the presence of groundwater, trees or contamination. 360R-3 Purpose and scope; Work of Committee 360 and other relevant committees; Work of non-ACI organizations; Design theories for slabs-on-ground; Overview of subsequent chapters; Further research; Slab types, p. Some people define a floating slab as one which is poured and isolated from the footings. Edit this example. Solved Example A cantilever slab 200 mm thick is 1. Thickness of Slab4 3. Potentially on a 50mm thick concrete slabs which measure 90cm x 60cm or something of the same equivalent you may “get away with“ using sand due to the sheer weight of the pieces alone. Between these two documents, the following list of references specific to the design of ground anchors and soil nails was developed: NZTA Bridge Manual 3rd Edition, 2016, Part 6 Site stability, foundations, earthworks and retaining walls; NCTIR Design Philosophy Report for Retaining Structures on the Existing Road Network 100001-CD- RW-DP-0001[1]. A: A structurally reinforced slab-on-ground uses a composite of concrete and structural steel to support the design load. This thesis intent to investigate the crack behavior of slabs-on-ground subjected to gradient shrinkage using nonlinear finite element analysis, as implemented in the software package Atena 2D. Packard R G 1976 Slab Thickness Design for Industrial Concrete Floors on Grade from CVEN 4545 at University of Colorado, Boulder. pdf), Text File (. “While an area rug can be a great look, it’s not ideal for everyone, especially if you entertain or have younger children,” says architect Sybille Zimmermann of Studio Zimmermann. The same thickness of slab will be used, with the same layout Given:-- 4 bays each way 8000 x 7000 Ult. As stated in the Foreword to ACI 302. 7 in2 and 52. Slab-on-ground design should result in sufficient strength to support without distressing the loads applied to the finished surface. Slab On Grade Design Example - Slab On Grade Design Example. A2-Slab thickness design by WRI method A3-Design examples using COE charts A4-Slab design using post-tensioning A5-Shrinkage-compensatingconcreteexamples CHAPTER l-INTRODUCTION l. 6 [m] is chosen. Socialist realism instructed artists to underline "national forms" with "socialist contents". The design procedure separately includes determining thickness of slab under wall load. Edit this example. In the simulations a self-developed program is used. ABSTRACT Consideration is given to the analysis and design of ground bearing warehouse slabs, in particular the analysis of the slab of a new warehouse whose performance has been monitored. A good source for more information is Design and Construction of Post-Tensioned Slabs-on-Ground (Post-Tensioning Institute, Phoenix, Ariz. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Floor Slab Thermal Performance Various center-of-building slab temperatures were examined at both surface and depth, located at A1 in Figure 2. Unless otherwise noted, all referenced table, figure, and equation numbers are from these books. The course addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. ACI-360R-10 Guide to Design of Slabs-on-Ground presents information on the design of slabs-on-ground, primarily industrial floors. This guide presents information on the design of slabs-on-ground, primarily industrial floors. Determine if vegetation, topsoil and foreign material have been removed from within the foundation walls where the slab is to be placed. The main code provision for footings that applies to freestanding decks (R403. h = the slab thickness, inches. A set of General Load tables for various types of loading on industrial slabs is provided and a system of loading categories proposed. 10 Design method from patch loads using design charts. 2—Example design criteria. calculating moment and shear in two-way slabs. Much of the savings is the result of converting thick heavily reinforced slabs into thinner unreinforced or lightly reinforced slabs. In this example, the calculating value of the effective depth d v is equal to the effective depth d minus the concrete cover c on the bottom surface of the slab: , 204 30 174 vout. 9 m q = 20 kN/m g = 15 kN/mk k From the table of Span/d for initial sizing Span d d Span mm. Slab thickness is the greatest single factor controlling the load-carry capacity of a slab-on-ground. This design example uses the term “podium slab” which, while not included in the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) or 2007 California Building Code (CBC), is commonly used in the building industry. Construction Joint in Slabs. Background information on design theories is followed by. However, because you don't get any 'do overs' when pouring a foundation most people wisely opt to contract the job out to a professional. For moisture- or alkali-sensitive flooring applications, including sheet vinyl, rubber, PVC or urethane-backed carpet tile, wood, or linoleum, consider the benefit of vapor retarder materials. Appendix 7—Construction document information. RE: AS3600 concrete strength for slab on ground csd72 (Structural) 10 Aug 09 08:29 I agree, I do it all the time when I am at a new company just to understand the way they think. They provide a very good form of construction where slab vibration is an issue, such as laboratories and hospitals. The transfer floors are commonly used in multi-storey buildings, and they are major structural elements carrying a number of floors. In addition to general ultimate and serviceability limit state design issues, practical design considerations such as the formation of holes in the slab, support details, fire protection, and attachments to the slab are discussed. A mix of hardy ground covers and paving bricks creates a tidy driveway that melts into the surrounding landscape. Monolithic slab is a term used in concrete slab construction to describe concrete structural elements such as footings, slabs, foundations, grade beams, piers, and columns being poured simultaneously. The mound stiffness by AS 2870-2011 clause F4(c) is k = 1000 kPa/m; The house is 8 m x 16 m in area, so that for a beam spacing of 4 m. design of SLABS and Residential Footings. It takes very little site preparation, very little formwork for. Paul Watts and Gillian Tesh of Mike Wye & Associates look at traditional and modern breathable solid floors. Slab on ground - Finished slab heights Architectural Window Systems have recently introduced a FlowTHRU Drain Integrated Stainless Steel Threshold Drain which has been designed to cover your situation - although there have been other ways before this product. Design the fixed and free end cantilever abutments to the 20m span deck shown to carry HA and 45 units of HB loading. Socialist realism and the great slab. Background information on design theories is followed by discussion of the types of slabs, soil-support systems, loadings, and jointing. It uses finite element analysis to analyse and design slabs of any shape with two-way action automatically considered. For the example building, the storey numbers are defined as follows:. The design procedure separately incl udes determining thickness of slab under wall load. In order to avoid the above problems, all the details of a concrete slab, from design to curing, must be performed appropriately. Example • Slab on ground, 5” thick. Load factors 1. The benefits of choosing flat slabs include a minimum depth solution, speed of construction, flexibility in the plan layout (both in terms of the shape and column layout), a flat soffit (clean finishes and freedom of layout of services) and scope and. ERRATA INFO. 5 m for a hall construction in a school. If areas have been filled, then verify that the fill is free of vegetation,. STRUCTURAL DESIGN. Keywords: Design methods, holes in slabs, seismic performance. , Slab-on-ground is a well-used building flooring formwork in the design of Aerated concrete slabs for may have to be raised of for example if. 4 and Clause 5. Where interior stud wall loads are to be carried by the floor slab, the slab section shall be thickened to 12-inches and founded directly on the undisturbed sub-grade. E-Mail [email protected] The course addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. Paul Watts and Gillian Tesh of Mike Wye & Associates look at traditional and modern breathable solid floors. The design earthquake is two thirds of the maximum considered earthquake, which is the ground motion that causes the most severe effects considered by the code. The surveyor will then checked the level of the projected top surface of the slab and place level strips if necessary to mark the exact level. Move to right to post spacing, y = 98. The slab on grade can be installed on the virgin ground, a layer of stone or porous material, etc. The edges of the slab are thicker (as wide as 24”) in order to allow for extra strength around the perimeter. A suspended timber floor on bearer's and joist's can sometime's be comparable cost wise on a flat site but is better suited if there's quite a bit to significant fall on the site. We will refer to the PCA Rectangular Concrete Tanks design manual as PCA-R, and the circular tank design manual as PCA-C. The mound stiffness by AS 2870-2011 clause F4(c) is k = 1000 kPa/m; The house is 8 m x 16 m in area, so that for a beam spacing of 4 m. Following these ten steps will give you a top-class TO. Compressive strength in pounds per square inch or kilo Pascals 2. Slab-on-grade foundations are commonly used in areas with expansive clay soil. The slab can be decoupled from ground temperatures by insulation, with the concrete poured directly over insulation (for example, extruded polystyrene foam panels), or heating provisions (such as hydronic heating) can be built into the slab. A ground beam is a reinforced concrete beam for supporting walls, joists, etc. This design example uses the term “podium slab” which, while not included in the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) or 2007 California Building Code (CBC), is commonly used in the building industry. Using the moments, shears and deflections determined above, nonprestressed slabs-on-ground, mat or raft. one column provided for supporting slab that is ( from wall to center of column distance 1. In order to simplify the analysis and to be able to use the superposition principle for evaluating the effect of load combinations, linear analysis is generally adopted even though concrete slabs normally have a pronounced non-linear response. The Structural Team The geotechnical consultant The engineer The architect or designer. BSS09011999-1 Abstract This design example illustrates the Empirical Design Method for composite concrete bridge decks specified in Article 9. In one way slab, the slabs are supported by the beams on the two opposite sides. Design of PT Slabs on Compressible Soil Ground Based on Specification of PTI. For the given soil condition, both walls and roof slab for a water tank is designed, but a base slab for a tank is not designed. Additional slab design considerations such as continuous reinforcement may be needed to offset the potential increase in curling stresses with the slab. In fact, the slab-on-ground could very well be in place at the time the bracing design is completed. Floor to be insulated over slab and dpm with min 75m thick Celotex GA4000, 25mm Celotex insulation to continue around floor perimeters to avoid thermal bridging. Design methods are given for unreinforced concrete, reinforced concrete, shrinkage-compensating concrete, post-tensioned concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete slabs-on-ground, and slabs-on-ground in refrigerated. design of SLABS and Residential Footings. The bars we use in the Tension zone of the slab is called Bent. The slab and/or wall thickness is increased when shear requirements dictate or the maximum steel percentages are exceeded. , project, where Richard Trethewey, TOH plumbing and heating expert, had a few hundred feet of PEX tubing (the same stuff used to heat radiant floors) looped on top of 1-inch foamboard and buried it in 6 inches of concrete. Market for Post-Tensioning Tendons Post-Tensioned Concrete Slabs-on-Ground Author: Ken Bondy Created Date: 8/14/2002 9:17:11 PM. CONCRETE SLAB-0N-GROUND INSPECTION CHECKLIST 1. twinsprings. Solid brickwork forms tracks outlined with tough-as-nails ground covers that can take an occasional misplaced tire. 2—Example selecting the optimum amount of reinforce-ment to maximize the compressive stress in the concrete where the slab thickness, the joint spacing, and prism expansion are known Appendix 6—Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on-ground using yield line method, p. SLB Overview. Floor slabs can range from a simple residential basement slab to a heavy-duty industrial floor. The design of composite slabs and beams is discussed in detail in relation to the Eurocodes and BS 5950. Criteria for Selection and Design of Residential Slabs-on-Ground. In one way slab, the loads are carried along one direction. Crazing – Many fine hairline cracks in a new slab which resemble a road map. Design the slab using the data given below; Purpose of building – Residential f ck = 25 Mpa f yk = 460 Mpa Concrete cover = 25 mm Height of block wall = 2. 8 of ACI 117-10 Specification for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materials. Slabs on ground typically are designed as unreinforced sections. Design with eurocode 2. The allowable bearing pressure on concrete is 4 N/mm 2. Assume a 3 story concrete building with first level parking. Design Aids are Instrumental in Constructing Concrete Buildings. Relevant list of references are presented in Section 8. Inspect subgrade vapor retarder (Sec. Below are 5 top images from 14 best pictures collection of slab on grade home plans photo in high resolution. 3-14), spSlab v5. Slabs and Flat Slabs Lecture 5 19 th October 2016 Contents -Lecture 5 • Designing for shear in slabs -including punching shear • Detailing -Solid slabs • Flat Slab Design -includes flexure worked example • Exercise -Punching shear. Slab footings consist of concrete beams and floors across the entire floor plan. Solved Example A cantilever slab 200 mm thick is 1. Slab On Grade Design Example - Slab On Grade Design Example. Design and Analysis of slab-on-ground foundations on both expansive and compressible soils. The Freedom to Do It Right Because your floors are off the ground, routing wiring for electrical, telephone, television and Internet service is easy and inexpensive. You may run into height restrictions where you choose to build, meaning you may have to build out instead of up. The bars we use in the Tension zone of the slab is called Bent. • The stair begins with an inclined slab from the ground surface. This type of concrete slab construction requires different concrete slab design from the one we normally see that is cast on the ground. The simply-supported beam has a span ‘ = 18 ft and excessive deflections will cause damage. Design methods are given for unreinforced concrete, reinforced concrete, shrinkage-compensating concrete, post-tensioned concrete, fiber-reinforced concrete slabs-on-ground, and slabs-on-ground in refrigerated. They range from around eight inches to three feet across. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ACI 360, "Design of Slabs-on-Grade", refers to this as a Type B slab. The bracing supplier will normally employ the services of a delegated engineer who designs the braces and their connections for wind loads. Please take a moment to provide us with some feedback on our website. SAMPLE DESIGN CALCULATIONS APPENDIX C EXAMPLE C2. Chapter 17 covers foundation. The above example illustrates that precast concrete manhole sections may be installed to considerable depths. This spreadsheet program provides for the design and analysis of post-tensioned concrete one-way beam and slab systems and two-way flat plate slab systems. The footing thickness is 1ft 9in. It emphasizes the aspects of concrete pavement technology that are different from pro-cedures used to design and construct slab-on-grade such as streets, highways, and floors. The choice of concrete mix and curing methods along with quality workmanship also play a key role. 100 psf is a reasonable load for light storage and I would normally use a 5" thick slab for commercial buildings and a 4" slab for residential. These tables should simplify the calculations. In most cases, slabs shouldn’t be placed next to new buildings until the backfill around them has settled for several years. We serve both homeowners and businesses for all kinds of building or renovation plans. Biggest Single U. Tree root-sidewalk conflicts are very common in developments. 1--Introduction A6. Keywords: Design methods, holes in slabs, seismic performance. The laying of the slab on ground designed flooring. This book develops the design methods set out in the Association's Technical Report 550, Design of Floors on Ground. The floor system of a structure can take many forms such as in situ solid slab, ribbed slab or pre-cast units. Conventional concrete has high embodied energy. Surface Area (A): The surface area of the slab is returned in square feet (ft 2). If it is built on a slab, the remedies are not only easier to fix, they are less expensive. Thickness of slab. COLUMN B-3 Example. 9 Eurocode 2 design method for patch loads. wide, leaving 25. Figure 4: Results in RCsolver. Above, Figure 1609, Basic Wind Speed (3-second gust), 33 feet above ground, exposure C IBC 2003 Zone V 30 (mph) 1 2 3 70 80 90 (Western Mass. The finite element method is commonly used to design the reinforcement in concrete slabs. 2 Slabs-on-ground, 3. 1—Introduction. com web: www. Publication 1571 Issue 1571 of Publication (National Research Council (U. Located in Playa Del Rey, California, the design features drought-tolerant landscaping, a built-in fire pit with seating, and a built-in barbecue. The concrete slab that is directly supported by the grade, meaning the bottom of the structure which is normally earth. 5 Procedure for determining flexural reinforcement 43 3. TF 705-R-03: Innovative Ways to Reinforce Slabs-on-Ground 1996, 8 pages, by Robert B. Lift slab construction (also called the Youtz-Slick Method) is a method of constructing concrete buildings by casting the floor or roof slab on top of the previous slab and then raising (jacking) the slab up with hydraulic jacks. This results in cracking and deformation, potentially leading to structural failure of any members attached to the floor, such as wall studs. 360R-66 A6. Notes Author Staff - BridgeSight Software Sponsor BridgeSight Software. , Designing Floor Slabs on Grade, 2nd, A new method for designing floor slabs on grade due to the difficulty Example for calculating bending The PCA and WRI slab on grade design methods for. It was actually the widespread use of the "post-tensioned" slab-on-ground which induced this interest in design procedure and in many studies of reported slab failures. Step 2 - Read across the table for #3 at 16" spacing (blue). Design of Slabs-on-Ground Reported by ACI Committee 360 ACI 360R-06 This document presents information on the design of slabs-on-ground, primarily industrial floors. Solid brickwork forms tracks outlined with tough-as-nails ground covers that can take an occasional misplaced tire. Continue to 11 of 16 below. Looks at cracking which can occur in pile-supported slabs, covering structural design, the differences between pile-supported, ground-supported and elevated suspended slabs, suggestions for slab designers, procedures and alternative design strategies. The slab can be decoupled from ground temperatures by insulation, with the concrete poured directly over insulation (for example, extruded polystyrene foam panels), or heating provisions (such as hydronic heating) can be built into the slab. "Design of Slabs-on-Ground" - ACI 360R-06 - by American Concrete Institute (2006) 4. This design example uses the term “podium slab” which, while not included in the 2006 International Building Code (IBC) or 2007 California Building Code (CBC), is commonly used in the building industry. It takes very little site preparation, very little formwork for. Making of Slab on Ground - Design Factors: The creation of slab on floor needs some fundamental design factors. EXAMPLE: The objective of this example is to minimize prescriptive requirements. Specifically, a concrete slab on grade may be subjected to concentrated post or wheel loading. Phone: 519-267-6789. Slab Grade Foundation Plan. 31 piled floor design example the design method previously explained is now illustrated by an example. This design example presents the procedures to calculate pile. Packard (Portland Cement Association, 1976) "Concrete Floor Slabs on Grade Subjected to Heavy Loads" Army Technical Manual TM 5-809-12, Air Force Manual AFM 88-3, Chapter 15 (1987). 1 Slabs-on-ground with turned down footings shall have a minimum of one (1) #4 bar at the top and bottom of the footing or (1) #5 bar or (2) #4 bars in the middle third of the footing depth. To perform LRFR rating, select the View Analysis Settings button on the toolbar to open the window shown below. Basketball Slab Specifications • 4” slab of 3500 psi concrete. SIMPLIFIED 2-D PF DESIGN METHOD Wind direction V = roof truss vertical reaction P = ½ (Resultant lateral roof load from truss) Model post-to-soil interaction; for constrained pier foundation and simplified method, this is fixed end at ground line. Slabs are also referred to as slab floors, slab on ground or raft slabs. One-way slabs:. The ASCE has let the booklet go out of print. SEPTEMBER 2013 LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN 12-4 minimum top slab thickness is 9 inches, and the minimum bottom slab is 10 inches for all culverts with spans larger than 8 feet. ) The PTI method presents a specific engineered procedure to resist the effects of expansive. In this post, we are going to show how we can analyse and design cantilever slabs subjected to floor […]. 2 Main menu interface 49 4. 2 and UBC 1997 Section 1816. 1R-3 The design of slabs-on-ground should conform to the recommendations of ACI 360R. The simply-supported beam has a span ‘ = 18 ft and excessive deflections will cause damage. 10 Design method from patch loads using design charts. Biggest Single U. The laying of the slab on ground designed flooring. post-tension ing. in two-way slabs with unbonded tendons and approaches the required amount of shrinkage and temperature reinforce-ment in ACI 318-11, Section 7. Design is defined as the decision-. Monolithic slab is a term used in concrete slab construction to describe concrete structural elements such as footings, slabs, foundations, grade beams, piers, and columns being poured simultaneously. The couple finally found their answer in PYHT. Nursing Home Floor Plans. Effective Span of Slab3 2. Assume that the footings bear on silty sand with an allowable soil bearing pressure of 3000 psf. However, there are many design decisions that must be made prior to the actual laying of the stones. The report addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. The drawing are as follows: Drawing FS1 - Foundation plan. 3m Variable load 5 kN/mm2 Slab thickness 200 mm Fck 25 N/mm2 fyk 500 N. In this case, the structural model of the full foundation slab is subjected to the applied ym displacements. • Select finish flooring systems that are appropriate for the building and are capable of functioning under both constant low temperatures and, depending on. If the design calls for large slabs of irregular flagstone, we always set them on a gravel base. Floors - Thickness For Sta. Move to right to eff. 75 150mm concrete floor slab 3. As you can see, the cantilevered slab (for example a balcony) is only supported on one edge. In this example, the calculating value of the effective depth d v is equal to the effective depth d minus the concrete cover c on the bottom surface of the slab: , 204 30 174 vout. And the most commonly planted swale tree in many parts of Florida is the live oak (Quercus virginiana), which is a wonderful long-lived, sturdy tree, that simply requires more root and trunk space than the 6 foot swale designated by the designers. Structural steel may be rebar or WWF. Several methods exist for pre-stressing concrete, with post-tensioning being a very common one. YOU WILL ALSO. 01D) - by Robert G. Hence the moment capacity along the hogging yield lines is limited to the design cracking moment of the concrete. Slabs-On-Ground: Slab Thickness and Base Tolerances For a more stringent fine grade tolerance, ACI 117-10 R. Thickness of slab. I wrote this piece before the pandemic, from earlier experiences and observations of Ghana’s healthcare infrastructure. Guidance Table 5: Examples of insulation for ground bearing floor slabs Suspended reinforced in-situ concrete ground floor slab supported on internal walls. Pier and Beam. The design shear force can be reduced to account for the loads applied inside the outer perimeter. 360, Guide to Design of Slabs-on-Ground describes these floors as "slabs reinforced for crack-width control" and categorizes them as Type 2a slabs. A slab on grade is, essentially, a slab of concrete poured into a form that rests on the ground. 2--Assumptions and design criteria Appendix 7--Construction document information,p. d) Divide n i by N i to determine erosion damage factor d i. In many domestic and industrial buildings, a thick concrete slab supported on. The simulations are performed with a typical Swedish slab-on-grade, as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Edit this example. 2 65mm concrete screed 1. Title Reinforced Concrete Slab Design Using The Empirical Method Publication No. Compressive strength in pounds per square inch or kilo Pascals 2. load bending moments in concrete slabs. However, Pro Con's experience with the Girder-Slab ® System precludes any shovel being placed in the ground in 2011. • Full double-glazed ventilated façade with shading with serigraphed glass shields. Yet, in the following decades, the hadal trench nearest to the U. For slabs spanning in both directions published tables and charts should be used to find bending moment and shear per unit width of slab. 1R-04, "Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction," pub-. unvarnished tilt slab concrete, or featureless. ACI 360, "Design of Slabs-on-Grade", refers to this as a Type B slab. Moments, shears and deflections for use in designing slab-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on expansive soils shall be determined in accordance with WRI/CRSI Design of Slab-on-Ground Foundations or PTI Standard Requirements for Analysis of Shallow Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. The Freedom to Do It Right Because your floors are off the ground, routing wiring for electrical, telephone, television and Internet service is easy and inexpensive. Worked examples presented at the Workshop “Eurocode 7: Geotechnical Design” Dublin, 13-14 June, 2013 Support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes. 3 Limit States Design Method 18. H1/AS1 amends NZS 4218 so that concrete slab-on-ground floors are deemed to achieve a construction R-value of R1. - 4 M Euros - 3. Download Free DEMO Updated August 8, 2019 SoilStructure Slab on Grade Software simplifies the calculation of a …. Slab-on-Grade. 15 kip/ft with other given quantities below. As mentioned, the fill layer on roof slabs (of apartment buildings with flat roofs) was often quite thick; six inches to twelve inches was not uncommon. A new method for designing floor slabs on grade due to the difficulty of applying simplified design methods, amongst them being the Portland Cement Association (PCA) and Wire Reinforcement. A concrete slab is a common structural element of modern buildings, consisting of a flat, horizontal surface made of cast concrete. The clear distance between webs is 50 inches. A stunning example of this philosophy is found in the new CopenHill waste-to-energy facility that towers like a mountain to the east of the city. Sponsored Links. The construction began in mid-2017 and was completed within a year. The design procedure includes determini ng slab thickness based on moving live loads and then checking adequacy of slab thickness for stationary live load. • In case the toe slab projection is large i. Such slabs are referred to as membrane slabs, floating slabs, or filler slabs and range in thickness from as little as 4" to 8" depending on the supported loads. To design a member like a slab or beam, we have to first find the bending moments (BM) and shear forces (SF) at the various points (supports, midpoints of spans etc. The decision to use a flat plate or flat slab is based on a number of considerations. Appendix 2 - Slab thickness design by Wire Reinforcement Institute method Appendix 3 - Design examples using Corps of Engineers' charts Appendix 4 - Slab design using post-tensioning Appendix 5 - Design example using shrinkage compensating concrete Appendix 6 - Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on-ground. Analysis using radio carbon dating has confirmed that the lake’s water level between 14,800 and 10,500 years ago was low enough to allow carving. Design with eurocode 2. This most often occurs in areas where the ground is not subject to freezing and therefore not likely to heave. ERRATA INFO. Much of the savings is the result of converting thick heavily reinforced slabs into thinner unreinforced or lightly reinforced slabs. Making of Slab on Ground - Design Factors: The creation of slab on floor needs some fundamental design factors. When sidewall columns are in a properly constrained condition (usually by attachment to a concrete slab-on-grade) shear forces are reduced by 25%. The design procedure separately incl udes determining thickness of slab under wall load. For example, a soft slab may be slumped into the opening of the stiff slab pot as part of creating a lid for the pot. Where interior stud wall loads are to be carried by the floor slab, the slab section shall be thickened to 12-inches and founded directly on the undisturbed sub-grade. designing and building concrete slab-on-ground substrates that are suitable for receiving flooring materials. Compared with conventional reinforcement, post-tensioning provides a long service life and high loading capacity, requires almost no maintenance and retains a high resale value. 1, July 2004. 360R-66 A6. concrete in the toe slab from upward acting soil pressure • Heel slab: Designed to resist moment due to downward pressure from the weight of retained earth (plus surcharge, if any) and concrete slab • Safety factor f1, 2 and f3 should be considered to provide a combination which gives the critical design conditions (worst. Unlike beams, slabs are relatively thin structural members which are normally used as floors and occasionally as roof systems in multi-storey buildings. 3--Typical details Conversion factors, p. The Construction and Design of Concrete Slabs on Grade D. For example, trying to locate experientially “accurate” photographs with different camera angles and framings helped us to realize the intimate scale and low-to-the-ground perspective of Vietnamese sidewalk life. Greenhouse Foundation Design. 3rd Edition of the Design of Post-Tensioned Slabs-on-Ground 8601 N. CONCRETE SLAB-0N-GROUND INSPECTION CHECKLIST 1. RCC Slab Design depends on the on the dimensions of the slab after which the slab is termed as a one-way slab or a two-way slab… In the design of RCC structures, Column Design and Beam Design are to be done before we start with RCC Slab Design… Basic Rules followed in the design of simply supported Slab. Her combination of low draft (keel up), ability to dry out and great sailing. Maybe you might wonder what the purpose of construction joints is and what it is all about. The analysis of the model allows to calculate several important parameters for the design of the foundation. Packard (Portland Cement Association, 1976) "Concrete Floor Slabs on Grade Subjected to Heavy Loads" Army Technical Manual TM 5-809-12, Air Force Manual AFM 88-3, Chapter 15 (1987). Additionally, ground slabs can be produced using the WetCast model, which produces especially durable and long-lasting forms. All standard box culverts have. The Construction and Design of Concrete Slabs on Grade D. The losses are from the edges of the slab and insulation on these edges will significantly reduce the heat losses. – The comprehensive earth pressure theories evolving from the original Coulomb and. It comes in two configurations where storage and internal memory. 1 for precast prestressed panel form design. While it may be prudent for legal reasons to specify a minimum strength, it is just as well as to develop the mix design for slab-on-ground applications by specifying the maximum sack content, water-cement ratio, and aggregate quantity/size. ACI 360R-10 Guide to Design of Slabs-on-Ground. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Concrete) submitted 12 hours ago * by briantopping I'm looking to DIY a hot tub slab on soils that are reported as the following:. I was told there was to be spread footings poured under the slab where the legs of the pergola was to be. , center to center of bearings. Houses built on soft soils, including soft clay, fine sand, or soils deep and rich in organic matter, may need wider footings, especially in wet conditions. A slab foundation is a simple concept. PCA Design Method • Two failure modes considered: – Fatigue failure due to slab flexure – Erosion failure due to foundation compression • Edge loads produce the worst stresses – Fatigue based on tensile stress due to edge loads • Corner loads produce the worst deflections – Erosion based on deflections due to corner loads 2. To achieve this, architects normally extend the slab beyond the ground floor building line, thereby forming a cantilever. This guide is not a standard nor. 5m Variable load 4kN/mm2 Slab thickness 175mm Fck 25N/mm2 fyk 500N/mm2 Cover to the reinforcements 25mm. Design is defined as the decision-. There are industry observers that believe fully adhered membranes applied to mud slabs or slabs on ground fail to fully bond to the top concrete pour and create openings. 2 of the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specification. CONCRETE SLAB-0N-GROUND INSPECTION CHECKLIST 1. 1—Introduction. Limiting factors on the width of the slab edge insulation in this situation are determined by the attachment of floor finishes and the width of the foundation wall needed to support the wall structure. 1—Introduction A6. When designing and building suspended slabs, this guide should be used in conjunction with ACI 318 and 302. The result is a lightly reinforced slab designed to offset the effects of temperature and shrinkage of the concrete. Then pulled into position using a rod with a hook on the end to grab the rebar. Cross-sectional areas of the floor beams and girders are 14. Monolithic slab is a term used in concrete slab construction to describe concrete structural elements such as footings, slabs, foundations, grade beams, piers, and columns being poured simultaneously. com 1733 Woodside Road, Suite 220, Redwood City, California, 94061, USA, Tel: (650) 306-2400 Fax: (650) 306 2401. Design of Slab (Examples and Tutorials) by Sharifah Maszura Syed Mohsin Example 2: Continuous one way slab Figure 1 shows a clear area of 12 m x 8. 25 mtr and other side from wall to center of column 3. 10 Design method from patch loads using design charts. DEFINITION OF “ENGINEERED FOUNDATION” An engineered foundation is defined as one for which design is based on three phases: a. Equilibrium frame method. PANACHE TEXTURED CREAM 450x450x40MM Code/20293. They have a number of outstanding advantages. In order to avoid the above problems, all the details of a concrete slab, from design to curing, must be performed appropriately. Its more than just forms and pouring concrete! The slab has to be at least 3. Interior column Each face of the column is at least four times the slab thickness away from a slab edge 2. However, ensure the base sections and/or transition slabs are properly designed to withstand the anticipated loads. 35 mtr so tell me how to construct this slab. The design procedure separately includes determining thickness of slab under wall load. Area rugs can help ground a room and add comfort, but putting one right below where you dine isn’t the most practical move. Cantilever slabs are common features in buildings due to the need to have bigger spaces at upper floors. This reduces the carbon cost of your home to 1/3 rd of a basement. The stiffened raft slab is the simplest and most common slab construction available. Instructional Materials Complementing FEMA P-751, Design Examples Reinforced Concrete Footings: Basic Design Criteria (concentrically loaded) d/2 (all sides) (c) Critical section for two-way shear (b) Critical section for one-way shear (a) Critical section for flexure Outside face of concrete column or line midway between face of steel column. 1 Hugo Camero Sanabria. 1 Recommended Design and Construction Details. Instructions for Use of Figure 7b: 1. A floating concrete slab is one which is poured at a (generally) uniform thickness on the ground without a separate footing. Formwork step to slab edge I did the foundations for a large electrical substation a few years ago and next to our job there was a control building being built by a very large construction company. designing and building concrete slab-on-ground substrates that are suitable for receiving flooring materials. 35 mtr so tell me how to construct this slab. The design procedure separately incl udes determining thickness of slab under wall load. After digging out the area where the slab will be located, compact the soil. Slab On Grade Design Example - Slab On Grade Design Example. Slab-on-Ground Design by Using the PTI Ken Bondy Method. These are not strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other surface conditions will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is 'shallow'. ASCE, SECB COURSE CONTENT Slab on Grades Construction: Introduction Concrete slabs on grade are a very common type of concrete construction. When a concrete slab forms part of the roof construction of a building, it is normally referred to as the 'roof slab'. For example, natural convection is a result of movement caused by changes in density as temperature changes within a fluid medium such as a liquid or a gas. The soil sub-grade should be brought to moisture equilibrium by covering it with an impervious membrane for a minimum period of two weeks before placement of the concrete floor slab. One example of a renovation of cinder slabs that has been successful is to take advantage of the loose cinder fill atop the structural slab to gain valuable space for new structure. ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF TWO-WAY SLABS 3. CONCRETE SLAB-0N-GROUND INSPECTION CHECKLIST 1. Type of slab: Unreinforced Reinforced. Salon Floor Plans. Slab on Grade – Concrete Slab on Grade Analysis for Concentrated Post or Wheel Loading. Her combination of low draft (keel up), ability to dry out and great sailing. Axle Load = 16. The ability to analyze the capacity of a slab on grade subjected to continuous wall (line-type) load as well as stationary, uniformly distributed live loads is also provided. 3—Typical details. A set of General Load Tables for various types of loading on industrial slabs is provided and a system of loading categories proposed. Constructing a concrete slab on the ground is like covering the ground with an impermeable membrane. The flagstone we use for patio design can be set in concrete with mortared joints, or laid on a compacted gravel base. A ground floor slab is to be designed for a single-storey supermarket measuring 60 m × 36 m on plan, as shown in Fig. Hi, Technically the design of a slab on ground is a plain concrete member with reinforcement added only for crack control. A Builder’s Guide to Frost Protected Shallow Foundations 1 Background A frost protected shallow foundation (FPSF) is a practical alternative to a deeper, more-costly foundation in cold regions with seasonal ground freezing and the potential for frost heave. For example, natural convection is a result of movement caused by changes in density as temperature changes within a fluid medium such as a liquid or a gas. 3-second gust Fastest mile Reference wind pressures Zone. Click the image for larger image size and more details. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. After digging out the area where the slab will be located, compact the soil. Construction Joint in Slabs. Because the concrete slab on ground is assumed to be continually supported, an adequate soilsupport system is critical to the slab's performance. Steel framing and 1st floor slab shown Size a spread footing for Column B-3 in the building shown below. 1R-3 The design of slabs-on-ground should conform to the recommendations of ACI 360R. The construction began in mid-2017 and was completed within a year. It shows the typical features of a 19th century well cap. 7b-Post Load – PCA Figure 7b – Design Chart for Post Loads (k = 100 pci). The slab on grade can be installed on the virgin ground, a layer of stone or porous material, etc. 1 the total slab length was 4. An additional safety factor is used for the loads called the "Sanitation Coefficient", we will denote it with SC for brevity. • Fully cover the reinforcing steel. Concrete floor slabs on grade are subjected to a variety of loads and loading conditions. Structural steel may be rebar or WWF. Ground slab – This solid concrete slab is the most common type of slab. Break out holes in ground and basement floor slabs for piles to be constructed. Slab Reinforcement. This guide presents information on the design of slabs-on-ground, primarily industrial floors. Salon Floor Plans. Once the wood is cut, lay the boards together on the ground like you are going to set the greenhouse kit on top of them. 11 Design method using finite element derived Design Chart. The only concern is to always remember not to cut or drill into post-tensioned concrete slabs, since once a tendon has been cut, it is very difficult to repair. Includes cutting of existing concrete encased steel downstand beams within the ground floor slab. No mention is made of a capillary break. twinsprings. They are commonly used to create floors for the upper storeys of houses, but can also be sat on top of pre-constructed walls to form a ground floor. ) (Eastern Mass. Crazing – Many fine hairline cracks in a new slab which resemble a road map. Normally the entire building, 10 to 15 levels, is carried by a transfer slabs. The uniform distributed load/m' on. than being related to carrying building structural design loads. Assume the soil density to be 130 pcf and try L = 2′, a footing thickness of 12″, #5 bars @ 10″ to match the slab reinforcing. Background information on design theories is followed by discussion of the types of slabs, soil-support systems, loadings, and jointing. Designedfootings include post-ten-sioned slabs-on-ground in accordance with this docu-ment (see IBC 2003 Section 1805. For example, a 5-inch slab can support a 5000-pound post load without additional concrete or rebar. In 2003, the Third Edition of Concrete Society Technical Report 34 [1] was published. Basement floor has no steel framing, it is composed of 6″ slab on grade with 12″ concrete masonry unit foundation wall on 12″ x 48″ cast-in-placed reinforced concrete foundation. • Select finish flooring systems that are appropriate for the building and are capable of functioning under both constant low temperatures and, depending on. They often argue that faulty design, materials, or construction must have caused such cracks. 14 Restraint to curling and hogging. Once the wood is cut, lay the boards together on the ground like you are going to set the greenhouse kit on top of them. 3 unless a higher value is justified by calculation or testing. It addresses the planning, design, and detailing of slabs. 3-Wheel Load – PCA Figure 3 – Design Chart for Single Wheel Loads. Example • Slab on ground, 5” thick. 9 Eurocode 2 design method for patch loads. Our aim is to ensure you find what you are looking for when visiting our site. Concrete slabs that form the ground floor of a building may be either supported on beams (called a suspended slab) or supported directly on the subsoil, (via hardcore, for example) called a 'ground-bearing slab'. This is the simplest, most budget-friendly, and most common type of house foundation. Good descriptions of how slabs behave and how this relates to design. without injuries. Criteria for Selection and Design of Residential Slabs-on-Ground. 1R-3 The design of slabs-on-ground should conform to the recommendations of ACI 360R. 9 m q = 20 kN/m g = 15 kN/mk k From the table of Span/d for initial sizing Span d d Span mm. "Design of Slabs-on-Ground" - ACI 360R-06 - by American Concrete Institute (2006) 4. 924 k / and 0. Based on the soil properties and the building type, a continuous shallow concrete foundation is more than adequate to support the design loads of 5,550 kips. A set of General Load Tables for various types of loading on industrial slabs is provided and a system of loading categories proposed. To design a member like a slab or beam, we have to first find the bending moments (BM) and shear forces (SF) at the various points (supports, midpoints of spans etc. Other designs use a thickened edge slab system, requiring complex form work. Determining slab thickness starts with the purpose of the slab, its use and its loads, in addition to applicable stan-dards. EXAMPLE 13. 1—Introduction. The slab is supported on beams of size 225 x 500 mm spaced at 4. Please take a moment to provide us with some feedback on our website. This foundation is a slab of concrete around 6 to 8 inches thick poured directly onto a soil surface prepared with gravel to facilitate drainage. 1): • concrete slab on ground (with or without under-slab insulation as dictated by the location) and foundations to AS2870 Masonry Code (to resist cracking), with a minimum 100 mm of slab edge exposed above the finished ground level. Slab-on-Grade. 3 unless a higher value is justified by calculation or testing. 1 Required Design Elements. wide, leaving 25. Appendix 6--Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on- ground using yield line method, p. In these climates, slab-on-grade foundations work well, as long as the slab is built to a good standard of quality and performance. มงคล จิรวัชรเดช. Assume that the footings bear on silty sand with an allowable soil bearing pressure of 3000 psf. Appendix 6—Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on-ground using yield line method, p. The design procedure includes determini ng slab thickness based on moving live loads and then checking adequacy of slab thickness for stationary live load. The dried out slab provides a comfortable indoor climate that is mold and mildew free. SLAB DESIGN Reading Assignment Chapter 9 of Text and, Chapter 13 of ACI318-02 Introduction ACI318 Code provides two design procedures for slab systems: 13. 360R-10 Guide to Design of Slabs-on-Ground. Once the requirements were communicated, the architects went on the ground and designed the house using locally available slabs of stone. Traffic volume is characterized by the fatigue effects which must be accommodated by the slab during the design life. Inspect subgrade vapor retarder (Sec. Seismic Rehabilitation of Existing Buildings: Detailing – Many examples are presented to illustrate how buildings are rehabilitated to resist the calculated seismic demand. Hi guys, Im looking for some advice and example foundation and slab detailing for timber frame construction. SLB Overview. , Designing Floor Slabs on Grade, 2nd, A new method for designing floor slabs on grade due to the difficulty Example for calculating bending The PCA and WRI slab on grade design methods for. Edit this example. Driveways width, however, can be worn with square plates. A concrete slab is a structural member, usually of constant thickness which could be used as a floor or a roof. It is on a 19th century farm. 25 mtr and other side from wall to center of column 3. DESIGN EXAMPLE USING THE REGRESSION EQUATIONS 243 J. After this publication, it was subsequent-ly adopted by the Uniform Building Code (UBC) as. These Winnemucca Petroglyphs include geometric motifs, carvings that look like trees and flowers, and in one example a complex diamond design. The slab thickness is to be designed as 150 mm. Flat slabs design is appropriate for most floor situations and is also suitable for irregular column layouts, curved floor shapes, ramps etc. DESIGN OF SLABS-ON-GROUND 360R-3 A5. Conventional concrete has high embodied energy. Completed slab count declined 11% from the first quarter of 2019. For heavier loads. If the design calls for large slabs of irregular flagstone, we always set them on a gravel base. Example 12. Difference Between One Way Slab And Two Way Slab: 1. Heat Loss Calculation. Slab-on-grade foundations are concrete slabs poured directly on the ground with no space between the ground and the concrete. Tabulated formulas that recommend minimum slab thickness based on span are found in the Concrete Design section of the Specifications. A monolithic cement slab or diy concrete slab not only applies to concrete cast on the ground, it also applies to suspended slab. Analysis of a slab's capacity to support on interior line load or concentrated point load: On-screen warning messages for out of compliance conditions. Guidance is. LIST OF TABLES 1. 1 and rating requirements as stated in 17. Document Status. Appendix 6--Design examples for steel FRC slabs-on- ground using yield line method, p. 35 mtr so tell me how to construct this slab. 876 = Conversion constant. Determining slab thickness starts with the purpose of the slab, its use and its loads, in addition to applicable stan-dards. Edit this example. To achieve this, architects normally extend the slab beyond the ground floor building line, thereby forming a cantilever. 5m Variable load 4kN/mm2 Slab thickness 175mm Fck 25N/mm2 fyk 500N/mm2 Cover to the reinforcements 25mm. When sidewall columns are in a properly constrained condition (usually by attachment to a concrete slab-on-grade) shear forces are reduced by 25%. Analysis of Concrete Slabs on Grade Spreadsheet "GRDSLAB" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of analysis of concrete slabs on grade. Example • Slab on ground, 5” thick. The performance of products and methods of fixing vary. Her combination of low draft (keel up), ability to dry out and great sailing. Slab Stress/1000 lb. 3 BONDED VERSUS UNBONDED TENDONS The decision to use bonded tendons in two-way post-tensioned slabs must be made very carefully, particularly when the slab design is governed by ACI 318-11. The rebar should end up in the middle of the slab, not at the top or at the bottom. for the design, construction, and maintenance of concrete parking lots placed on the ground. below ground surface and the soil type is stiff residual clay (S = 82 lb/ft 3 per Table 4-3). 5 Procedure for determining flexural reinforcement 43 3. The concrete slab will be my finished floor. Ground slabs - Introduction Concrete slabs are similar to beams in the way they span horizontally between supports and may be simply supported, continuously supported or cantilevered. Edit this example. This will depend on whether the tank is elevated, resting on ground level or buried underground. 0 NOTATION Area of column or area of effective column head Area of steel in tension Effective width of slab for transfer of moment to edge column Size of a rectangular column in x-direction Size of a rectangular column in y—direction Effective depth of tensile reinforcement Depth of column head Characteristic yield strength of. Guidance is. 1 The maximum design differential movement Δ = L/400, with a maximum of Δ = 30 mm; The above-ground part of the footing is to be 200 mm. Thickness of slab. They provide a very good form of construction where slab vibration is an issue, such as laboratories and hospitals. A slab on ground can be one of a number of different types of slab such as a raft slab, waffle pod slab, slab with dropped edge beams or a reinforced slab on fill. Interior load bearing walls call for thickening the slab, there, as well. Your building department or local concrete contractor will know the frost depth for your location. ERRATA INFO. This video shows you how to calculate the amount of concrete required to pour a Concrete Slab on Ground with Splayed edge beam and a Rebated edge. All standard box culverts have. 6 carries an axial load of 600 kN. The superimposed dead load (SDL) is 1. Surfaces can be stained or overlaid. In addition to general ultimate and serviceability limit state design issues, practical design considerations such as the formation of holes in the slab, support details, fire protection, and attachments to the slab are discussed. The mesh designated 6 x 6 - W2. 11 Design method using finite element derived Design Chart. This is not always possible, certainly if your site is an urban infill lot, leaving you two. 1050mm cover slab 750 x 750 central opening is 1400mm OD. 5 inches throughout the length of the bridge. How to Pour a Concrete Slab: The Basics. Reinforcement for Slab5 4. ACI 360, "Design of Slabs-on-Grade", refers to this as a Type B slab. This decline was primarily driven by record rainfall in March 2020, which pushed revenues from its first quarter into the second. The ground floor insulation examples illustrated below are for general guidance only. The design procedure includes determini ng slab thickness based on moving live loads and then checking adequacy of slab thickness for stationary live load. Waddell Engineering Ltd. 4 of 20 Slab Bridge Designer 2. This reduces the carbon cost of your home to 1/3 rd of a basement. The barriers are 1. To verify the size effect a thick reinforced concrete slab, experimental studies on the shear '~'"A'"'"'"-LAA of large reinforced concrete circular slabs subjected to distributed. Assume a 3 story concrete building with first level parking. Sadly for sale is our lovely Gib'Sea 282 Swing keel the DorneMist. for example M20,M25 mixtures are used and steel 1% to 2. , center to center of bearings. It uses finite element analysis to analyse and design slabs of any shape with two-way action automatically considered. ACI 360R-10 Guide to Design of Slabs-on-Ground. 2 Procedure Shear checking 41 3. Figure 3: 3D model, concrete slab and reinforcement rebars. The flagstone we use for patio design can be set in concrete with mortared joints, or laid on a compacted gravel base. INTRODUCTION In reinforced concrete construction, slabs are used to provide flat, useful surfaces. to require concrete slab-on-ground floors to be reinforced with grade 500E ductile reinforcing mesh in accordance with AS/NZS 4671:2001. The design and structure should be site specific. THE DESIGN OF GROUND BEARING SLABS IN WAREHOUSE CONSTRUCTION L. Before a post-tension slab is poured, high-strength steel strands or cables, called tendons, are laid in a tight grid. But somehow, It goes against logic; for example, I design the slab based on 100pci subgrade, and during a site inspection, I realize that the contractor did a really good job in compacting the soil, and the soil modulus in reality should be 200pci or more. The rebar can be placed on pieces of bricks or stones, as shown in Figure 1, to hold it above the ground when the concrete is poured. Click the image for larger image size and more details. Effective Span of Slab3 2. 0 discusses site design options for moisture and vegetation control systems. CONCRETE SLAB-0N-GROUND INSPECTION CHECKLIST 1. Slab is the general term used to refer to any of the available types of slabs. The direct design method. I would retain a local. Loads: Framing Dead Load = selfweight Superrimposed Dead Load = 25 psf partitions, M/E, misc. The article presents detailed results of the experiment made and advanced numerical modelling based on nonlinear analysis and application of fracture-plastic model. This spreadsheet program provides for the design and analysis of post-tensioned concrete one-way beam and slab systems and two-way flat plate slab systems. 340 m2 surface - 3 Levels - 300 tones of screwed steel structure - Structure 100 % recyclable – 70 % from recycling - Perforated beams ACB. pdf), Text File (. 3 ½" concrete slab R506. Model and design slab on ground, end bearing piles and friction piles using the INDUCTA software. 1R-04, "Guide for Concrete Floor and Slab Construction," pub-. • Water-cooled composite slab using sinusoidal stainless steel façade, which acted as framework to the concrete slab of 300 mm depth. 3m Variable load 5 kN/mm2 Slab thickness 200 mm Fck 25 N/mm2 fyk 500 N. It is InnoHomes’ preference to build on Engineered Raft Slabs. 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