W = total weight of the aircraft. The average 18-wheeler gets about 6. It is forged over time by actions, deeds, and respect earned by experience. The Cessna 421 Golden Eagle is the top-of-the-line Cessna piston twin. A modern fuel (or petrol efficient) efficient car would run at under 8 litres per 100 kilomters which is equivalent to around 35 miles per gallon. the zero fuel weight). Hope you find it useful. Aircraft fuel planner for Boeing 737, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 747, Airbus A320, Airbus A380, MD-11, DC-10, CRJ2, CRJ-200, E135, Embraer, Mcdonnell. 3: Calculate the Truck’s Payload Capacity. There is a vast array of potential units for measuring fuel consumption. where C is the density ratio (secondary to primary). This includes a crew of two at 200 lbs each (one for FAR 23 certified aircraft) and four passengers at 200 lbs each unless otherwise noted. Platts Jet Fuel Price Index is calculated by S&P Global Platts using that organization's proprietary daily assessments for Jet Fuel spot prices in the relevant regional centers. AeroDynamic Aviation® 7. Calculating percent power with a computerized engine monitor requires a bunch of inputs. Can it fly for three hours before running out of fuel? Can it fly for 4 hours before running out of fuel?. Engine Design Calculator fuel system injector size per horsepower Friction Factor Cat To Human Age Calculator Long Division Calculator Quadratic Formula. N1 relates to a parameter which is responsible for the performance of the engine. (FC [kg]= CO 2 [kg] / 3. 4 Aircraft Endurance If the time spent in the air is of interest and not the distance traveled then one is concerned with endurance. ENGINEERING. New Aircraft Ferry Fuel and Tankering Calculator This simple calculator will help you find out if you are saving money by flying to a different airport for cheaper fuel. Solution: Apply Formula: Aviation Gasoline weight per gallon (gw) =6. The ECM uses this input to aid in the calculation of fuel and spark delivery. The objectives of the project are a closer look on the calculation of the fuel consumption and the implementation of an Excel file, which enables the user to calculate the required fuel of any aircraft, based on the "Aircraft characteristics for Airport planning", which are published by the respective aircraft manufacturer. The equation can be solved directly for N if C, M and R. The tax is imposed when motor fuel is produced in or imported into New York State and when diesel motor fuel is first sold or used in the state. Can it fly for three hours before running out of fuel? Can it fly for 4 hours before running out of fuel?. Aviation Jet Fuel Section 1 Quality Control and Test Procedures General This section describes in detail the test methods, procedures and standard/best practices common to aviation fuel testing and quality control throughout the industry. Natural gas emissions calculated on 0. Alternatively we can calculate the centre of pressure travel as follows: At point A on the flight envelope: Wing lift W = 4166 Lbs Airspeed V = VA = 83 kts = 95 mph. The brand-new PC-12 NGX builds on the rock-solid, 1,700 aircraft foundation of its market-defining predecessor. Collins Aerospace ARINCDirect maintains a multitude of data on airports and airways around the world. The term (L/D) is the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio, and ln stands for logarithm to the base e. The fluid pressure at a given depth does not depend upon the total mass or total volume of the liquid. As one might expect, there is a flight condition that will give us the best range for a given aircraft, and a different flight condition that will give us maximum endurance. 5 Equivalent airspeed. If you set fuel correctly, you should have fuel in tanks 1, 2, 3, and 4. 5 billion gallons of aviation fuel in 2008, costing $7. Weight and balance question, how to use the weight shift formula? I am writing out a flight plan for a Cessna 172. Calculate the weight of fuel carried. Wetted Area. If the aircraft flew from A to B and then had to divert from B to C, a Safe Endurance of 161 (107 + 54) minutes would be required. Cragin Aviation Services in Dallas, TX, check nozzle fuel flow by performing a bottle test as described on Page 3. 8 AM - 5 PM EST. What you’re really looking at climb home for is where you’ll be changing to cruise power and for a way to calculate fuel burn for the flight since you’re covering less ground during the climb. metric tons = 11. FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES INTRODUCTION The gas turbine is an internal combustion engine that uses air as the working fluid. Aircraft fuel planner for Boeing 737, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Boeing 747, Airbus A320, Airbus A380, MD-11, DC-10, CRJ2, CRJ-200, E135, Embraer, Mcdonnell. 5 times that in 1990. Some of these are directly related to the aviation community and some are of indirect interest. You can simply select an airline type or an aircraft manufacturer and model. The rates for Aircraft Jet Fuel are in the chart below. 23 Mount Erin Rd, Blair Athol NSW 2560, Australia 02 9607 2299. L = Lift, which must equal the airplane's weight in pounds; d = density of the air. From this divide by the maximum range and number of passengers. In order to calculate the amount of fuel for a given trip using our fuel cost calculator or otherwise, you need to know the total distance you will be covering and the expected average fuel consumption of your vehicle. If you’re going to error, assume the climb will be slower and longer than it will be, for fuel calculations in the real world. Variable costs are defined as costs that go up or down depending upon the usage of the airplane. com is a free tool to calculate flight distances between IATA / ICAO world airports and display the great circle distance on a map. The average velocity formula and velocity units. This tool is designed for general aviation airplanes but can also be used to calculate ferry fuel savings for turboprops and even jet aircraft. You also pay standard rate VAT at 20% on most fuel, or the reduced rate of 5% on. Due to the rapidly changing nature of the aviation industry, Elliott Aviation does not warrant or guaranty the accuracy or availability of the Fuel Calculator. The formula column, which needs to calcualate automatically the fuel consumption/100 kms whenever there are new entries in columns 2 and 3 as shown above. Choosing to offset through ClimateCare means you’ll support best practice projects that deliver value for the environment, your business and local communities. Example - How to calculate the BSFC. If the basis fuel cost was $2. These include the aircraft configuration, wind component, and the altitude of the aircraft. Gasoline has considerable weight—6 pounds per gallon. Energy Information. Below, we will demonstrate a method to calculate the theoretical thrust that that a propeller or rotor can generate. The Piusi K33 mechanical fuel flow meter measures the exact quantity of the dispensed diesel fuel or oil through a nutating disk system. I was bored at work yesterday so did a simple little calculator in excel. The formula for specific gravity, given that the reference substance is water, is the density of the object divided by the density of the water. bottle available that will treat up to 400 gallons of fuel. April 30, 2020. Breguet Range Equation Calculator. 02 for each gallon the aircraft jet fuel sold to an aircraft jet fuel user or used by the dealer as an aircraft jet fuel user. 00 per gallon. It includes advanced features like Monthly Payments by Term tables and the ability to view Principal and Interest amounts. Nitro Torque Calculator. The lower flash point (84-87 F) fuel was created by mixing 91 wt% of base fuel with 9 wt% of the overhead (2. For computation purposes, the following weights should be used. The use of nitrous oxide as a performance enhancement has been used since World War II. For example, a spacecraft leaving the surface of Earth needs to be going 7 miles per second, or nearly 25,000 miles per hour to leave without falling back to the surface or falling into orbit. The quantity of fuel which is calculated to be necessary for a jet aeroplane to fly IFR from departure aerodrome to the destination aerodrome is 5352 kg. Reduced density, in this case, is responsible for less number of molecules of air entering the cylinder. volume to weight conversions at different temperatures. Howstuffworks. Hi everybody, I experience dificulties to set as properly as possible the Fuel calculation in INIT FUEL PREDICTION Page (INIT 2) :In the FUEL PREDICTION PAGE INIT 2 , I Noticed, that no matter fuels loaded, always have a ZFWCG of 25How to calculated and figure out BLOCK value. MARTINDALE'S CALCULATORS ON-LINE CENTER ENGINEERING CENTER AERONAUTICS ENGINEERING, AEROSPACE ENGINEERING & FLIGHT SCHOOL CENTER (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals,. For high Reynolds number applications (above 2 × 10 5), values of 0. Some of these are directly related to the aviation community and some are of indirect interest. Fuel for the NBAA IFR reserves for a 200 NM alternate is also included in the calculation. Flow factor is e. During an emergency is not the time to discover your home's wattage needs. I have rebuilt 100+ engines that used it 100% of the time. multiply km/litre by 2. Rialto, CA 92376, USA 909 605 1123. 5 tons, the freight rate calculation is as follows:. 5 inch connected to a vent with an opening of perhaps two holes with a 0. Online Flighttime Calculator. To give the efficiency as a percent, we multiply the previous formula by 100. STA-BIL 360° MARINE is safe to use in ALL gasoline engines, including 4 and 2-cycle. The Horsepower Calculator will calculate the horsepower of any vehicle instantly if you provide the total weight in pounds of the vehicle (and its occupants) and the MPH (miles per hour) that the vehicle is traveling the instant the vehicle crosses the finish line for the quarter mile (called the "trap speed"). If the Fuel Surcharge rises above 5. Calculating percent power with a computerized engine monitor requires a bunch of inputs. Enter volume and select a unit of volume, specify temperature and select a unit of temperature. Fuel for the NBAA IFR reserves for a 200 NM alternate is also included in the calculation. The fuel calculations for the leg A - B, based on a cruise fuel flow of 80 LPH and a max endurance fuel flow of 60 LPH are as follows:. It varies with engine speed and load (and hence how the aircraft is operated). Enter time values as hours; 6 minutes is 1/10 hour. 85 bar) That BMEP (9. The objectives of the project are a closer look on the calculation of the fuel consumption and the implementation of an Excel file, which enables the user to calculate the required fuel of any aircraft, based on the "Aircraft characteristics for Airport planning", which are published by the respective aircraft manufacturer. Fuel combustion. Air velocity (distance traveled per unit of time) is usually expressed in Linear Feet per Minute (LFM). Long haul is a term used for very long flight distances. 86 MJ/L (128,700 BTU/US gal) vs. Conversion Table. Use 150% of what what is stated in the POH to ensure a margin of safety when taking off in order to clear an obstacle at the end of a runway. The airframe weight is only twenty to thirty percent the gross weight of the aircraft; therefore, one can expect the monetary impact of structural weight savings to be. This must be a question from someone's homework. For example, if you pay $3,890 for 1,000 gallons of diesel, you get an average per gallon cost of $3. The cubic feet formula depends on the shape of the object for which one is calculating volume, but for a cube, v=a^3, where a is the length of one side in feet. The result of the CO 2 calculation together with the fuel specification in Table 4-3 can be used for calculation of the following parameters: The fuel consumption, FC, is calculated by dividing the CO 2 emission by the fuel-specific CO 2 emission. Jet A-1 is a kerosine grade of fuel suitable for most turbine engined aircraft. A calculation object is a "thing" that can be subject of a calculation. Those for 2019 may not be the wholescale changes due for 2021 – all aimed at making F1 racing even more competitive - but they are laying the all-important groundwork. The average velocity formula and velocity units. PFPX is nearing the final release and incorporates altitudes, cost indexes, weather, fuel, routes, and ETOPS calculations so I don't see a need for FSL to develeop one. Molecular formula for Kerosene is, CnH2. STA-BIL 360° MARINE is safe to use in ALL gasoline engines, including 4 and 2-cycle. for every 10 gallons of fuel at every fill-up and when storing for an extended period. For example, as the aircraft usage hours increase, the variable cost will increase as well even though the cost per unit stays the same. D = distance the CG will move. And you probably worry about the impact on your airline costs. Approximately 1. An online calculator to calculate the breguet range of an aircraft. Use this online Breguet Range Equation Calculator to calculate its range and optimizes it to give the maximum aircraft weight and tells. As a pilot, you should be familiar with the flight manual for your aircraft of choice. How much fuel will you need if you burn 20 kgs per minute, and are travelling at 300 mph? kgs: You have used 12 kgs of fuel in the past 2 hours. STADIS ® has been setting the standard in static dissipators for more than 30 years; trusted for use in aviation fuel since 1983. The drag polar is simply a plot of aircraft drag vs. Write down this mass. Volume II (REV 6) covers HERO. As a result, TCO is sometimes called life-cycle cost analysis. Fire Fighting Foam Principles and Ethanol-Blended Fuel Basic Foam Principles PM 5 - 4 All of these elements must be combined properly to produce a quality foam blanket (see Figure 5. We currently have 0 (new or used) Cessna 421C aircraft listings. The production of transport services in most modes involves joint and common costs. For example, if you drove 335 miles before refueling, and you filled your car up with 12 gallons of gas, your fuel consumption was 27. This is how I plan my fuel for each flight cross country. where C is the density ratio (secondary to primary). Escape velocity is the speed that an object needs to be traveling to break free of a planet or moon's gravity well and leave it without further propulsion. New jet diameter = √ (Old jet diameter² x required flow factor). Pressure Drop Online-Calculator Calculation of pressure drops of flowing liquids and gases in pipes and pipe elements (laminar and turbulent flow). Hauling cargo on your roof increases aerodynamic drag (wind resistance) and lowers fuel economy. You must account for duty on oils stored on your premises when they leave your warehouse for use within the UK. This Aircraft Calculator is used to calculate the Center of gravity and balance of your aircraft. But when the sky is blue and the summer sun is hot, even seasoned pilots can forget to carefully calculate takeoff, climb, cruise, and landing performance during preflight planning. New York State has a motor fuel excise tax on motor fuel and diesel motor fuel sold in the state. Remember, the fuel price should not be the sole measure for selecting a heating appliance. Take a look at the graph below for the power chart for a Lycoming O-360. The tank size calculator on this page is designed for measuring the capacity of a variety of fuel tanks. 98,043 lbs (required fuel) + 12,000 lbs (alternate/reserve fuel) + 2,000 lbs (taxi fuel) = 112,043 lbs. A) You can calculate the flight time using the flight time calculator. Aviation Converters and Calculators Below is a list of aviation based calculators, conversion charts and converter programs available for use. MARTINDALE'S CALCULATORS ON-LINE CENTER ENGINEERING CENTER AERONAUTICS ENGINEERING, AEROSPACE ENGINEERING & FLIGHT SCHOOL CENTER (Calculators, Applets, Spreadsheets, and where Applicable includes: Courses, Manuals,. The amount of fuel needed for a given flight can be calculated by multiplying the estimated flight time by the rate of consumption. The product of SFC and Specific impulse is one. For a distance of 926 km, the amount of fuel used is estimated to be 3. The unscheduled maintenance tends to be most expensive in terms of maintenance costs because it is unplanned. Allied aircraft used it for emergency boosts in airspeed and altitude capabilities. Compression Ratio Calculator v2. We currently have 0 (new or used) Cessna 421C aircraft listings. Measure by kilometers. This tells you how many miles you drove per gallon of gas. The weather forecast shows an INTER requirement for the ETA. We created this generator size calculator to help you consider your needs and to help you think about what you would like to power during an outage at your home. Kg of CO2 per unit of consumption. Dodecane has a density of 0. Re: fuel consumption VS speed change Post by The Dieselduck » Fri Mar 04, 2011 3:03 am My head is not much into this kind of puzzle these days, but it seems to me the question is missing some information to be able to answer correctly. Aircraft Operating Cost Calculator Use the tool below to find information about over 230 business aircraft, including jets, turboprops and pistons. yellow marker). Figure 9 is a sample of weight and balance computation using an airplane with a zero fuel weight. Aviation Fuel Savings Calculator finds the monthly savings and yearly savings in dollars used by airlines to improve operational efficiency and fuel related costs. Change Equation or Formula Select to solve for a different unknown. I was bored at work yesterday so did a simple little calculator in excel. By using this calculator, you as the user expressly agree to the terms of this disclaimer in full. The fuel estimate is based on fuel consumption of 8 gallons per hour at $5. , Aircraft Design: A. For changes in fuel storage inventory, Equation 6 can be used to calculate actual fuel use. As such, N1 does not take into account the other variables which may affect thrust, such as engine performance degradation after several years. 59 pounds emissions per passenger, per mile 1. The piston engines currently used in small general aviation aircraft are actually more efficient than that, but the standard for minimum fuel has remained the same. It can carry up to 238,604 liters of fuel. The engineers that develop performance charts assume that the […]. The time between the start of injection and the recovery of the combustion chamber pressure to 310 psi is defined as the ignition delay. Simply enter your total mileage traveled per state and your total fuel purchased per state for all IFTA qualified units. If the actual/real AFR is 13. com is a free tool to calculate flight distances between IATA / ICAO world airports and display the great circle distance on a map. This calculation will give you the mass of the fuel liquid. *note: there are adjustments that have to be made to this formula, see usable pack size below* Watt-Hour per Mile (Wh/m): The basic rule of thumb for vehicle is: Small Vehicle 250-300wh/m. DTS is available. Gather your utility bills (electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, propane) to calculate your average use over a year. 5: Example engine failure PET single leg. 43 per kWh. A number of software options-with varying degrees of specificity. There is a vast array of potential units for measuring fuel consumption. The one that gives the lowest average value is selected. 804 kg per liter. Kilograms = 11,339. Our time and distance calculator will provide you with a great circle distance and should only be used as a guide. v = velocity of an aircraft expressed in feet per second. I just realized that the data I used for fuel efficiency includes some sport cars. Weight fraction for cruise segment is found using Breguet range formula. Aviation Weight Shift Formula. The default safety margin is zero (0); be sure to include a good margin of time. Point of Taxation: Motor Vehicle Fuel Tax Law, R&T Code Section 7392 "Rate of Tax" The tax is imposed upon every aircraft jet fuel dealer at the rate of $0. To solve this dilemma, the FMS uses both ingredients, and is therefore able to counterbalance these cost factors and to help select the best speed to fly, therefore called ECON (i. Fuel Surcharge Formula Calculation. Approximately 12 pounds (maximum) gross weight per horsepower (at the rotor). 86 MJ/L (128,700 BTU/US gal) vs. Aviation W&B Calculator makes it easy to precisely the load the airplane. Note: Calculations are possible only, if Javascript is activated in your browser. The calculator, which can be used for all vehicle types, provides two results – one based on official fuel economy data and the other representing real-world driving. The tank size calculator on this page is designed for measuring the capacity of a variety of fuel tanks. The functionality of this calculator will meet the needs of any people. Using the proposed system which involved minimal costs, could reduce the potential errors such as miscalculation due to human factors. Here, we first see how EPS works and then use the EPS formula to calculate the monthly pension. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) Specific fuel consumption (SFC) is one of the most important metrics employed in aviation. I 116th CONGRESS 1st Session H. Although washing may not be necessary in between consecutive voyages,. • Specific fuel consumption and Breguet range equation • Transonic aerodynamic considerations • Aircraft Performance – Aircraft turning – Energy analysis – Operating envelope – Deep dive of other performance topics for jet transport aircraft in Lectures 6 and 7 • Aircraft longitudinal static stability. January 31, 2020. Fuel burn is expressed in quantity of fuel (either lbs or gallons) burned per hour (not per distance since winds are a factor). L = Lift, which must equal the airplane's weight in pounds; d = density of the air. Flow factor is e. The calculator also includes an optional Driving Distance Calculator that will calculate the distance between two cities, addresses, or points, plus map your route and give you turn-by-turn directions. Wind velocity (mi/hr) is - (minus) if it is a tailwind, + (plus) if it is a headwind (relative to the ground). 00 Jet A weight per gallon (dw) =6. The dynamic compression ratio is a more advanced calculation which also takes into account gasses entering and exiting the cylinder during the compression phase. As a consequence, carbon dioxide emissions in 2050 are expected to be 1. The thermal efficiencies are usually below 50% and often far below. It includes advanced features like Monthly Payments by Term tables and the ability to view Principal and Interest amounts. In this example, the total weight of the airplane less fuel is 4,240 pounds, which is under the zero fuel weight of 4,400 pounds. Basis 1 (from fuel consumption per flight) One way to calculate CO2 emissions is from fuel consumption per flight. New Aircraft Ferry Fuel and Tankering Calculator This simple calculator will help you find out if you are saving money by flying to a different airport for cheaper fuel. Engine Building. This calculator was developed by, and remains the property of, SCION and is licensed to EECA for use on this website. Air Calculator. 501(c)(1) of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) as an arrangement whereby a person leases his airplane with flight crew to another person, and no charge is made for the flights conducted under that arrangement other than those specified in paragraph (d) of this section. Just half the difference of weight between actual and the ref and multiply by 3. Proin elit arcu, rutrum commodo, vehicula tempus, commodo a, risus. meet the stp ® racing family When Richard Petty rolled into Victory Lane at Riverside International Raceway during the 1972 Cup season opener, STP ® was on the car, and we’re still on it today. Unless they change the rules for the Sport Pilot certificate as well (which I don’t expect to happen). On the other end of the scale a maximum figure in the. divide 100 by km per litre; Convert km/litre to miles per gallon i. These loads depends on the amount of weight which is carried by the aircraft. 6 After 2 hours trip fuel "remaining" will be 84. In the previous section, we have introduced the basic velocity equation, but as you probably have already realized. Pressurized aircraft enable pilots to fly faster at higher, more fuel-efficient altitudes where human physiology would suffer without some help. (FC [kg]= CO 2 [kg] / 3. The molecular formula seems to suggest 6 units of carbon, and hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio 2:1 just like water C6(H20)6 ie. Formula 1 Movers List Weak pound spells trouble for the tourism industry. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) is a parameter that reflects the efficiency of a combustion engine which burns fuel and produces rotational power (at the shaft or crankshaft). 84 Total Capacity (AvGas) Fuel Load Weight=(Fuel weight)* (gw). Alternate fuel is 4380 kg. Unless you have an in-line fuel flow meter (which most small planes don't) figuring fuel consumption is more of an art than a science. The above equation is known as the Breguet range equation. Glen charges a 20% markup on all projects for his computer and software company which specializes in office setup. Please note that this table is intended to be used as an estimate of how much fuel a generator uses during operation and is not an exact representation due to various factors that can. Nowadays the fuel consumption is usually around 3 to 4 liters per passenger per 100 kilometers, which makes fuel the #1 cost for an airline (representing around 30% of total costs). How do you calculate airplane fuel consumption? I have to calculate the fuel consumption of a prototype plane by knowing only weight ,lift and drag Raymer, Daniel P. This article is be about being careful while doing your fuel computations. Use a calculator to subtract the empty cylinder weight in Step 1 from the weight recorded in Step 2. 3) Press "Calculate" to find the. 40/l, the lifetime fuel costs per kilogram gross weight results in C1500-2000/kg. For what it's worth, it came up with $41. Geographic Midpoint with Maps Engines | Propellers Airport Locators & Aviation Fuel Prices Weather. The main specifications for Jet A-1 grade (see below) are the UK specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1) Nato code F-35. The most common jet fuel is made from paraffin oil and kerosene and is called JET A-1. Available for $9. Aviation Fuel Management Essentials (Classroom, 3 days) Follow the supply chain from refinery to delivery into the aircraft. 646 — En-route fuel supply: flag and supplemental operations. I can email if anyone is. New jet diameter = √ (Old jet diameter² x required flow factor). com tells us that a Boeing 747 airplane can consume 1 gallon of fuel per second. Aircraft weight and balance calculator software is used to perform required weight and balance calculations. Enter fuel values in gallons and the aircraft fuel calculator will update you with the aviation fuel consumption based on the inputs. It can be calculated. W004a 2 Jet Fuel CharacteristicsJet Fuel Characteristics Why this Subject?Why this Subject? • Provide a brief introduction to aviation fuel definitions and characteristics • Familiarize you with terminology and industry jargon • Address operational concerns related to fuel • Inform you of research work and possible future fuels • Exchange some insight into the Energy of Flight. com is a free tool to calculate flight distances between IATA / ICAO world airports and display the great circle distance on a map. so difference is 10t. This fuel load, together with the aircraft limitations listed below, will determine the revenue-earning portion of the Traffic Load. Platts Jet Fuel Price Index is calculated by S&P Global Platts using that organization's proprietary daily assessments for Jet Fuel spot prices in the relevant regional centers. Online Services. Some of these are directly related to the aviation community and some are of indirect interest. 500 Argon A 1. http://schemas. Weight is in pounds. 1-1992 which was used as a reference to create the combined Navy regulation NAVSEA OP3565 / NAVAIR 16-1-529. January 17, 2020. Injection duration is the period of time during which fuel enters the combustion chamber from the injector. NEW DELHI: Revenue department today said fuel in tanks of aircraft of all Indian airlines entering the country are exempt from customs duty. Use this online Breguet Range Equation Calculator to calculate its range and optimizes it to give the maximum aircraft weight and tells. Processing. Where: E = Safe endurance in hours, calculated by dividing fuel at take-off, minus the appropriate Min Overhead Fuel, by the average fuel burn per hour H = Groundspeed when returning to departure airfield O = Groundspeed when proceeding to destination airfield One Engine Inoperative PNR. The tank size calculator on this page is designed for measuring the capacity of a variety of fuel tanks. IFTA Tax Calculator. CARES Act Air Service Exemptions for American Airlines, Corporate Flight Management d/b/a Contour Airlines, Advanced Air, LLC. On Thursday, March 12, 2020, U. To calculate the jet velocity and flowrate, enter the parameters below. How do you know how much of each to use? Try this octane calculator to reach your desired octane. public through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Springfield, Virginia 22161. definitions The centre of gravity (C. Here’s our round-up of what you need to know about the new season’s. Figure 2 shows three common rate shapes: boot, ramp and. Aviation fuel contains highly refined gasoline and is sold to individual aircraft operators. Measure by kilometers. Formula 1 Movers List Weak pound spells trouble for the tourism industry. Once the aircraft C D is known, the drag is then obtained by scaling with the free stream dynamic pressure and the wing reference area. let me try to explain, let's say we are flying from ord to lax, lax has bad weather and we have to hold for 1 hour burning 3000lbs an hour, min fuel is 2700lbs, we choose an alternate of San Diego. Molecular formula for Gasoline is, CH2. Aircraft flight manuals contain valuable information about how to safely operate the aircraft under various conditions, including performance charts that help the pilot better predict the. Responding to representations from the industry on the notification, the Central. 3558179 = 97181192. Applied to purchases of fuel, including gasoline, diesel, propane (for motive purposes), aviation fuel, locomotive fuel and renewable fuels. Basic Calculation. The maximum endurance of an aircraft (or the time aloft) refers to a flight condition that requires the minimum fuel power. reduce an aircraft's weight to keep it in the air. The ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank contains information on exhaust emissions of production aircraft engines, measured according to the procedures in ICAO Annex 16, Volume II, and where noted, certified by the States of Design of the engines according to their national regulations. For example, if you drive a car for a distance of 70 miles in one hour, your average velocity equals 70 mph. The heating value is a constant dependent upon the type of fuel used. The duct is designed to be efficient with the correct wall angles (sharp), base slope, and width-to-depth ratio in relation with speed. The only option that's left :-) Do a reverse calculation using the 'Fuel on board' and the uplift in litres to calculate what the fuel on arrival was. 4 knots; The airspeed is 489. Taking advantage of moving within a fluid, aircraft propulsion is achieved by air-breathing engines, i. These calculations are done for each day in the fuel price review period and an average for the fuel price review period is calculated. Aircraft Cost Calculator enables users to determine the true operating costs of the hundreds of aircraft and helicopters in our database. The power would be the same (35. FACTORS AFFECTING MASS AND BALANCE IN AIRCRAFT • FUEL CONSUMPTION: • In flight, the mass of the aeroplane reduces through consumption of fuel. Fuel Flow = Trip Fuel / Flight Time = 84. How to Calculate Cabin Differential Pressure. The energy source is the combustion of a fuel (carried onboard) with oxygen in the air, but it might also be solar power or nuclear power. If an aircraft consumes 5 gallons of fuel per hour, the total fuel consumption is 20 gallons (4 hours times 5 gallons). Special Operations. Analysis on Costs for Aircraft Maintenance 179 airline. Imperal Gallons = 3,106. You also pay standard rate VAT at 20% on most fuel, or the reduced rate of 5% on. Unless you have an in-line fuel flow meter (which most small planes don't) figuring fuel consumption is more of an art than a science. It is forged over time by actions, deeds, and respect earned by experience. MDAD employs an “airport system residual” formula to calculate MIA landing fees. Products; and NFPA409, Standard on Aircraft Hangars. Fuel Needed & Fuel Cost Calculations. limited to aeromedical evacuation data, aircraft payload, ground times, primary mission aircraft inventory, airfield throughput, fuel burn rates, and new Maximum [aircraft] On Ground (MOG) terms, has been substantially revised and should be completely reviewed for impacts on existing plans. Zero Fuel Weight: weight of the aircraft before addition of fuel; If you shift weight after determining the aircrafts weight and balance then verify your calculations with the weight shift formula; Weight Moved = Distance C. Avgas (100-130 or 100-130LL) weight is calculated at 6 pounds per gallon; Jet A (jet fuel) at 6. This is how I plan my fuel for each flight cross country. According to ATA, every dollar increase per barrel (42 gallons) drives an additional $415 millon in annual fuel expenses for U. passengers and cargo airlines. I can email if anyone is. Calculate Time from Distance and Speed. Example: Actual landing weight is 50t. If you have a complex footprint or you know that you will need to offset over 2,000 tonnes, get in touch and we can offer you more bespoke support. The drag coefficient calculator calculates the drag of an object as it moves through a fluid environment such as water or air. This calculator is presented for educational or amusement purposes only. Sales tax does not apply to Aviation Gasoline used to propel aircraft, except for Aircraft Jet Fuel, when the purchaser presents the Exemption Certificate for Motor Vehicle Fuel for Propelling Aircraft, found in Regulation 1598, Motor Vehicle and Aircraft Fuels. Glen has just taken a job with a company that wants to set up a large office space. The average price of a litre of fuel in the UK is now around £1. Rocket F1-EVO Weight and Balance Calculator "Doc Throck" has adapted our script for his spiffy hot homebuilt. It’s fair to say that there is no exact science or formula by which to calculate the impact of age on maintenance and operating costs. 40/l, the lifetime fuel costs per kilogram gross weight results in C1500-2000/kg. Within its luxurious interior are four true living spaces, a full size kitchen and a dedicated crew suite. Honda Opens CES 2020 Site. 1 pounds of carbon dioxide emissions per mile 1. Hope you find it useful. Your basic common or garden jet fuel is Jet A or Jet A1, with a density on the ground of 0. It is generally of a higher quality than fuels used in less critical applications, such as heating or road transport, and often contains additives to reduce the risk of icing or explosion due to high temperature, among other properties. Note that the velocity is expressed in calibrated airspeed. We use 3000 L for the 'Uplift litres' and 5240 kg for the 'Fuel on board'. Mathematics in Flight: Distance, Rate and Time Lesson Plan d = r x t Exercise 1 The P-51 aircraft travels at a cruising speed of 275 knots and has a range (maximum distance) of 1,000 miles. The most efficient engine operating point is P 2, with the BSFC in the area of 240 g/kWh. The post gives a simple way to convert Density of petroleum products from ambient temperature ( say 15 +/-7 deg C ) to density at 15 Deg C, in line with ASTM table 53B, without using these table and in the field with simple calculation. Kilograms = 11,339. The average price of a litre of fuel in the UK is now around £1. Try this formula. The loaded weight of the aircraft, as identified in the formula, is what the airplane weighed when the CG was out of limits. The fuel calculations for the leg A - B, based on a cruise fuel flow of 80 LPH and a max endurance fuel flow of 60 LPH are as follows:. The thrust-to-weight ratio varies continually during a flight. Use this fuel calculator to easily calculate the fuel consumption of a vehicle: car, bus, truck, etc. Atmospheric Calculator Reynol. The main specifications for Jet A-1 grade (see below) are the UK specification DEF STAN 91-91 (Jet A-1) Nato code F-35. Discover a universal assistant for all of your unit conversion needs - download the free demo version right away!. Our time and distance calculator will provide you with a great circle distance and should only be used as a guide. For example, the dimensions of a cargo freight equal 3. 31 per litre. Note that the velocity is expressed in calibrated airspeed. Calculate your carbon footprint here at TerraPass. How air-fuel ratio can be diagnosed and monitored with the help of. 3 Cost index calculation Fuel Time I C C C =. Next the aircraft structure disappears, leaving the passengers, their baggage and freight sitting on the scales. If you input these numbers into the calculator, the answer will be 21 miles per US Gallon. Nitro Torque Calculator. Hope you find it useful. Introduced in 1968, it's popularity was proven by a very successful production run of about 1,920 aircraft produced until Cessna shut down its entire piston production line in 1985. The DW Fuel Calculators were developed to assist the customer both before and after the sale. South Carolina offers several options for filing and paying your taxes online. Fuel economy label updates. 9 miles per gallon, or mpg (335 miles / 12 gallon = 27. THE BIG DEBATE is the 40:1 PREMIX RATIO. In order to calculate the weight of a maximum fuel load, we need to find out what kind of fuel was used and then apply a conversion factor. Calculate the weight as 6 lbs. I'm doing some research into advances in aircraft and need to calculate some (rough) values for aircraft consumption per passenger. It suggested that the interest-free unsecured credit period for payment of fuel charges to oil marketing companies should be enhanced to 180 days from the current 21 days. Since gasoline is about 87% carbon and 13% hydrogen by weight, the carbon in a gallon of gasoline weighs 5. The fuel control system of PT6A-27 turbo-prop engine consists of an oil-fuel heat exchanger, fuel pump, fuel control unit, fuel starting flow control unit, fuel-spraying nozzles, and fuel and. The average velocity formula and velocity units. 85 bar) That BMEP (9. Alternatively we can calculate the centre of pressure travel as follows: At point A on the flight envelope: Wing lift W = 4166 Lbs Airspeed V = VA = 83 kts = 95 mph. The formula is provided in the answer. This chapter describes Air Mobility Command (AMC) aircraft and provides the necessary planning data to effectively prepare load plans. Edit: To emphasize the need for density measurement on each lot of fuel. Glen charges a 20% markup on all projects for his computer and software company which specializes in office setup. Home > Quartermaster Documents and Training Manuals > > Figure 3-1. 3558179 = 97181192. The equation can be solved directly for N if C, M and R. Obviously I weren't be quick at the start but I should get these types of questions down to about 30 - 60 secs each. Weight Changes The operating weight of an aircraft can be changed by simply altering the fuel load. You can simply select an airline type or an aircraft manufacturer and model. Such use shall constitute a release and agreement to hold harmless, defend and indemnify Freight Metrics from and against any liability (including but not limited to liability for special, indirect or consequential damages) in connection with such use. Maximum Payload Capacity – 14 CFR 119. 5 pounds (gross weight) per square foot of rotor disc area. Can it fly for three hours before running out of fuel? Can it fly for 4 hours before running out of fuel?. Brabec and Honda Claim Victory at 2020 Dakar. Approximately 4. So in or example D = (632. Wing Volume Impact on Fuel Capacity. 9 liter, 4-stroke spark ignited internal combustion engine. The term (L/D) is the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio, and ln stands for logarithm to the base e. If you input these numbers into the calculator, the answer will be 21 miles per US Gallon. 30 for diesel. The Aircraft Fuel System An aircraft’s fuel system must be capable of providing a consistent delivery of fuel at the flow rate and pressure established by the manufacturer to Read more. Be sure to check and see what your hydrometer is calibrated for, while most hydrometers are calibrated to be accurate at 68 degrees (F) / 20 degrees (C) not all of them are. Most engines used a fixed compression ratio, however a variable compression ratio engine is able to adjust the compression ratio while the engine is in operation. Weight saving calculator. There are several reasons why the calculation of the PNR may be useful/required including: Where the nature of the cargo or passengers makes it diplomatically undesirable to land anywhere other than the intended destination or the point of departure. The resulting fuel blend is designated by the distillate name “2. These calculations are done for each day in the fuel price review period and an average for the fuel price review period is calculated. Honda Adds Wheelchair Racing to Sustainability Site. 72L) if the fuel used is aviation gas. CPFH is a well-known DoD cost metric. Peterson A common emergency that firefighters encounter is flammable liquid spills and fires. 00689475729 = 1,160. RC Fuels - Fuel mix calculator - I would imagine many get frustrated trying to figure out the percentage of oil, nitro and methanol to mix glow fuels. Engine Building. Please use our carbon calculator below:. Motor Carrier Fuel Tax (MCFT) for intrastate carriers who operate only within Indiana (Indiana travel only). 5 inch connected to a vent with an opening of perhaps two holes with a 0. As you can see here, you only need 112,000 lbs fuel to cross the Atlantic on a westbound flight. In this project, a long haul flight is a flight exceeding 12 hours flight time. The default safety margin is zero (0); be sure to include a good margin of time. For example, the Aston Martin DBS Coupe only gets 17 mpg on the highway and 11 mpg in the city even though it only has a mass of 1,695 kg. Molecular formula for Kerosene is, CnH2. Weight Changes The operating weight of an aircraft can be changed by simply altering the fuel load. The American Gas Association (AGA) represents more than 200 local energy companies that deliver clean natural gas throughout the United States. Edit: To emphasize the need for density measurement on each lot of fuel. Mod-01 Lec-34 Calculations for Thrust and Fuel Consumption - Duration: 50:54. Fuel life is 2 months, depending on the amount of moisture it’s exposed to. The following formula is simplified from the fact that Area=3. How air-fuel ratio can be diagnosed and monitored with the help of. Whether you're working on a navigation log, dividing up rest breaks for multi-crew cockpits, or trying to figure out how many flights to the same destination you can fly before going illegal, Time Calculator for Pilots can help. Fuel Surcharge Formula Calculation. Altitude for your aircraft. Variable costs are defined as costs that go up or down depending upon the usage of the airplane. Helicopter pilots, airplane captains, Air Traffic Controllers—if you're into flight, this is the place to be. For those aircraft, the system estimates the fuel burn by taking the average of all the other aircraft in the same category. Examples of the use of the figures are given below the figures. December 18, 2019. Enter any two fields (on the Main Variables Part I) then press "Eval" on any remaining field for that field's result. This tells you how many miles you drove per gallon of gas. 5 External links. W = total weight of the aircraft. The Cherokee method for calculating fuel, distance, and time to climb is relatively simplified in that it is based on one figure—the aircraft's rate of climb. Weight and balance question, how to use the weight shift formula? I am writing out a flight plan for a Cessna 172. includes fuel and payload – Airplane empty weight (W 1) lbs weight of airplane without fuel Endurance calculation – Fuel flow rate = - c P (lbs fuel/unit time) = – Differential fuel burned – Solving for time and integrating BHP HR LBS FUEL-w f dW f dt dW f = dW = -c Pdt 1 0 0 0 1 E W f W W W dW dW E dt cP cP = - W =W 1 +W f Range and. I fly a very basic 150, do most of my own maintenance minus the actual annual inspection, and own my hangar and runway. The use of nitrous oxide as a performance enhancement has been used since World War II. 5psi) please use the flow vs pressure calculator to calculate injector flow rate at base pressure. Aviation Converters and Calculators Below is a list of aviation based calculators, conversion charts and converter programs available for use. Anhydrous ethanol (<0. Final reserve fuel is the minimum fuel required to fly for 30 minutes at 1,500 feet above the alternate aerodrome or, if an alternate is not required, at the destination aerodrome at holding speed in ISA conditions. If the aircraft flew from A to B and then had to divert from B to C, a Safe Endurance of 161 (107 + 54) minutes would be required. ) #N#Enter the planes maximum airspeed in km/h Enter the Average Chord dimension of the control surface. Ground speed (GS) is the horizontal speed in which the aircraft moves relative to a fixed point on the ground. JET B belongs to the naphtha-kerosene family and performs remarkably well in cold weather. The equation can be solved directly for N if C, M and R. 69 inches aft of datum c) 93. 72 kg per 3. To make the above calculation easy, like John's method we need to remember only ref speed of 120 kts. #N#Note: Standard pressure is 29. ] Of Aviation Gasoline you want to convert to Foot Pound, use the chart below to guide you. 1, so the CMB equals 16. Get Financing as low as USD $11,940. To calculate the distance X to an all-engine PET use the all-engine TAS to calculate O and H in the formula. Fuel properties 4 need of engine modifications. Combat consumption rates for bulk fuels (FM 101-10-1/2 extract). Fuel Pump Calculator. Creating a profile: Basic Info Defining a new aircraft profile is very simple and can be done in just a couple of minutes. The calculator allows you to also estimate the flight time or the duration of the flight. How to Avoid this Scenario: The only way to calculate the mileage is to know how far you went and how much fuel was used. As a result, how much fuel per passenger an aircraft is consuming is one of the most important issues in the airlines management. Conversion Table. The Piusi K33 mechanical fuel flow meter measures the exact quantity of the dispensed diesel fuel or oil through a nutating disk system. To use the formula to calculate your fuel surcharge, subtract your fuel threshold amount from the actual price per gallon and divide that amount by vehicle’s. For example, if an aircraft's total weight was 8,600 pounds, and you shifted 100 pounds from station (or, arm) 100 to arm 150, a simple weight shift formula can be applied: Weight Shift Formula This is solved easily by cross-multiplying: 50 x 100 ÷ 8,600 =. density altitude = 5,470 + [120 x (35 - 5)] Working out the math, our density altitude is 9,070 feet. 52 (BSFC) HP = 999. Larger aircraft remain important for the more heavily traveled routes, but the ordering trend is toward smaller aircraft. Foam Calculations By David F. New Module Details Since the body of the aircraft (Wing, Fuselage, and tail) forms 50-60% of the empty weight, the new module uses three. A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion. The second method of calculating ETE will suffice for the time aloft to calculate fuel consumption. Typically, the pilot of an aircraft will think in terms of pounds per hour (pph) since the overall weight of the aircraft, including fuel, passengers, cargo, etc. ) Scroll down to the "Results": The Charge Rate Per Day in the freight rate cost estimate is used as the base rate figure in the calculator (indicated as $1693. Those for 2019 may not be the wholescale changes due for 2021 – all aimed at making F1 racing even more competitive - but they are laying the all-important groundwork. The lower flash point (84-87 F) fuel was created by mixing 91 wt% of base fuel with 9 wt% of the overhead (2. Reserves can generally be considered 10% of the total amount of fuel capacity for the airplane. 377 Acid, Sulfuric (87%) 1. The American Gas Association (AGA) represents more than 200 local energy companies that deliver clean natural gas throughout the United States. Good news is fuel cost does not just depend on fuel price, but also on fuel efficiency! The math of fuel efficiency is really simple. The rates for Aircraft Jet Fuel are in the chart below. The most common jet fuel is made from paraffin oil and kerosene and is called JET A-1. The product of SFC and Specific impulse is one. Fuel for the NBAA IFR reserves for a 200 NM alternate is also included in the calculation. 8 AM - 5 PM EST. To figure engine speed (RPM), multiply by the Speed in MPH, by the rear axle gear ratio times 336. Fuel Consumption Rate Calculation This is the average distance that it is possible to travel per unit quantity of fuel. Aviation Converters and Calculators Below is a list of aviation based calculators, conversion charts and converter programs available for use. 86 MJ/L (128,700 BTU/US gal) vs. the zero fuel weight). Formula 1 Movers List Weak pound spells trouble for the tourism industry. This is not the case with the technol-ogy of automatic sprinkler systems. 8 AM - 5 PM EST. 2 Emissions resulting from the use of electricity are more complex to calculate as they. It requires the user to look up altitude and RPM first, move over to Manifold Pressure (MAP), draw a line, then adjust for OAT with a formula. 1 gallon [U. Kilograms = 11,339. During an emergency is not the time to discover your home's wattage needs. The amount of fuel needed for a given flight can be calculated by multiplying the estimated flight time by the rate of consumption. The functionality of this calculator will meet the needs of any people. Taxi fuel is the fuel used prior to takeoff and will normally include pre-start APU consumption, engine start and taxi fuel. This calculator can be used to estimate range danger areas when planning the destruction of ammunition by open detonation. It has a range of about 7,790 nautical miles. *RECENTLY REDUCED PRICE* Pinnacle Aviation is proud to bring to market this two owner since new 800XP. v = velocity of an aircraft expressed in feet per second. The example calculates the safe endurance but includes the 120 liters holding fuel as flight fuel. This is the payload. 13792 calculation of internal temperatures in summer of a room without mechanical cooling simplified methods 15251 Specification of criteria for the internal environment (thermal, lighting, indoor air quality) The calculation of the airflows through the building envelope and the ventilation system for a given. This estimate of CO 2 emissions is from aircraft taking off from the UK, and there will be a similar quantity of CO 2 generated on the return flights, giving a total of 80. This equates to roughly 1 gallon (approximately 4 litres) of fuel every second. If the definition of a Light-Sport Aircraft changes to accomodate more weight, or a constant speed propeller, or retractable gear, or higher speeds, then a Sport Pilot would be able to fly them as well. Fuel for the NBAA IFR reserves for a 200 NM alternate is also included in the calculation. Johannesburg - South African motorists will receive a 24 cents a litre decrease in the price of petrol as of as of April 5. reduce an aircraft's weight to keep it in the air. Speed, distance, and time test - 10 questions to answer as quickly as possible. HondaJet the Most Delivered Aircraft in its Class. Conversion Table. For example, a flight of 400 NM at 100 knots GS takes 4 hours to complete. MDAD typically calculates landing fees effective October 1 based upon budget estimates and, if necessary, adjusts landing fees effective April 1 based upon revised estimates. The average price of a litre of fuel in the UK is now around £1. Correlations for jet fuel density and temperature are found by use of tools based on ASTM D 1250-04 and IP 200/04 (API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 11- physical properties Data, Section 1:Temperature and pressure volume correction factors for generalised crude oils, refined products and lubricating oils). Breguet Range Equation Calculator. So the fuel used gave rise to 40. Fuel valves used in light general aviation aircraft as fuel selector valves. that allows them to dispatch the flt using an amount of fuel that (under the 10% req'mnt) is only 10% of the flight time fuel from the re-release point to dest which can be a very small amt. If a pilot lowers airplane weight by reducing fuel, the resulting decrease in. The calculator also includes an optional Driving Distance Calculator that will calculate the distance between two cities, addresses, or points, plus map your route and give you turn-by-turn directions. milligrams per 100 ml. The formula for calculating runway percent is the rise divided by the run times 100, so for Challis, it is a 1. It is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis. For this reason, it is impossible to define the exact composition of jet fuel. Correlations for fuel oils density and temperature are calculated by use of tools based on ASTM D 1250-04 and IP 200/04 (API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards, Chapter 11- physical properties Data, Section 1:Temperature and pressure volume correction factors for generalised crude oils, refined products and lubricating oils). Hope you find it useful. All the weight specifications will need to be identified from data given by the aircraft manufacturer before force equilibrium calculations can be applied. 9 litres, and is reliable, inexpensive. Reserve fuel is the sum of Alternate fuel plus Final Reserve fuel. 4 knots; The airspeed is 489. Given this information, we can calculate the breakeven point for XYZ Corporation's product, the widget, using our formula above: $60,000 ÷ ( $2. It works the same way for cars, trucks, buses, vans, SUVs, and even boats and planes. STADIS ® has been setting the standard in static dissipators for more than 30 years; trusted for use in aviation fuel since 1983. Injection duration is the period of time during which fuel enters the combustion chamber from the injector. hydrate of carbon. Fuel is injected into a constant volume combustion chamber at approximately 575 °C and 310 psi. This calculation is made for the average gross weight of an aircraft. Our environment training is designed to help you to responsibly address environmental challenges such as noise, emissions and waste management, and understand the economic principles of emissions cap-and-trade policies. During tuning and installation, the calculators can provide data to help you optimize your results. 25% or there are changes to the thresholds, the above table will be updated. It has a range of about 7,790 nautical miles. For direct costs, he figures the $40 an hour for fuel, $2 per hour for oil and $50 annually for landing fees. Small car emissions calculated on. Molecular formula for Kerosene is, CnH2. Engine Building. During tuning and installation, the calculators can provide data to help you optimize your results. Reserves can generally be considered 10% of the total amount of fuel capacity for the airplane. STA-BIL 360° MARINE is safe to use in ALL gasoline engines, including 4 and 2-cycle. The formula used to calculate the emissions in pounds (lbs) is: Emissions (lbs) = Flight Time (hours) x Fuel Burn (gal/hr) x 21. The drag polar shown is the same as the RV-6A drag polar presented on page 37 of the September 1993 Sport Aviation. This Aircraft Calculator is used to calculate the Center of gravity and balance of your aircraft. This is commonly $1. Avgas (100-130 or 100-130LL) weight is calculated at 6 pounds per gallon; Jet A (jet fuel) at 6. bottle of STA-BIL 360° MARINE treats up to 120 gallons of gasoline. Introduced in 1968, it's popularity was proven by a very successful production run of about 1,920 aircraft produced until Cessna shut down its entire piston production line in 1985. 6 = 30 Kg Reserve which is 30% of trip fuel will be 30 x 0. There is no tax on kerosene removed directly into the fuel tank of an aircraft for use in foreign trade. Atmospheric Calculator Reynol. Aviation FAA Pilot Exams Traffic Flow Management Flight Plan, Flight Status, Airport Status, etc.
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